The main goal of the Project is to create in the Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Science (Nizhny Novgorod) a Research Laboratory "Novel apPrOacheS to investigation of climaTE processes and pRedictIOn of extReme events" (POSTERIOR Lab) which will act as a Russian Research Center for development and application of novel approaches to modeling and prediction of climate processes. This multi-disciplinary goal cries for joint abilities and efforts of leading Russian scientists in the fields of dynamical and complex system theory, climate modeling, and time series analysis; these efforts will be accumulated under supervision of Prof. Juergen Kurthz - the head of Research Domain "Transdisciplinary Concepts and Methods" of Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany. The significant contributions to the solution of actual problems of climate system studies are anticipated in the following directions: 1. Development of mathematical tools for construction of empirical prognostic models from time series generated by complex (climatic) systems, including 1.1 elaboration of architecture of model evolution operator (stochasticity, parameterizations, non-autonomy, etc.); 1.2 development of optimal model selection techniques (methods for determining of optimal dimension, optimal number of parameters, criteria for comparison of different parameterization efficiency); 1.3 creation of methodology of empirical model learning by means of time series, generated by computer models of different complexity, as well as by climatic data. Development of criteria for different models comparison; 1.4 development of efficient algorithms for model learning, based on parallel computing. 2. Modeling of regional climate systems by vector (spatially distributed) time series of climatic characteristics, which includes 2.1 development of methods of phase variable reconstruction on the basis of vector data: extraction of spatial-temporal patterns governing regional climate processes; 2.2 construction of empirical models intended for short-term prognosis of regional climate indexes. applications to prognosis of various indexes (ENSO, PDO, NAO, etc) by dint of time series generated by Global Climate Model (GCM) as well as by really recoded data; 2.3 development of methodology of regional extreme events prognosis; 2.4 construction of empirical models intended for long-term prognosis of regional climate system state: prognosis of climatic statistical characteristics, critical transitions, climate shifts; 2.5 testing various prognostic models by virtue of time series generated by GCM, and their use for prognosis on the base of real data; 2.6 investigation of basin stability of regional climate systems and use of basin stability approach for increasing of prognosis fidelity. 3. Construction of empirical model of Earth's climate system including 3.1 development of methods for decomposition of global climate system into a set of weakly interacting subsystems (modes), using both real data, and data generated by GCMs; 3.2 investigation of stability of retrieved climate modes by means of complex network approach; 3.3 construction of prognostic models of climate modes; 3.4 development of methods for modeling of coupling between subsystems; 3.5 global climate prognosis. 4. Elaboration and creation of bundled software intended for 4.1 empirical prognosis of regional climate including prognosis of extreme events; 4.2 empirical prognosis of global climate.